Dimensional Reduction for Identical Kuramoto Oscillators

Chen, Bolun. “Dimensional Reduction for Identical Kuramoto Oscillators”, Boston College, 2017. http://hdl.handle.net/2345/bc-ir:107589.

Abstract

Many phenomena in nature that involve ordering in time can be understood as collective behavior of coupled oscillators. One paradigm for studying a population of self-sustained oscillators is the Kuramoto model, where each oscillator is described by a phase variable, and interacts with other oscillators through trigonometric functions of phase differences. This dissertation studies $N$ identical Kuramoto oscillators in a general form \[ \dot{\theta}_{j}=A+B\cos\theta_{j}+C\sin\theta_{j}\qquad j=1,\dots,N, \] where coefficients $A$, $B$, and $C$ are symmetric functions of all oscillators $(\theta_{1},\dots,\theta_{N})$. Dynamics of this model live in group orbits of M\"obius transformations, which are low-dimensional manifolds in the full state space. When the system is a phase model (invariant under a global phase shift), trajectories in a group orbit can be identified as flows in the unit disk with an intrinsic hyperbolic metric. A simple criterion for such system to be a gradient flow is found, which leads to new classes of models that can be described by potential or Hamiltonian functions while exhibiting a large number of constants of motions. A generalization to extended phase models with non-identical couplings gives rise to richer structures of fixed points and bifurcations. When the coupling weights sum to zero, the system is simultaneously gradient and Hamiltonian. The flows mimic field lines of a two-dimensional electrostatic system consisting of equal amounts of positive and negative charges. Bifurcations on a partially synchronized subspace are discussed as well.