Nolan-Spohn, Hannah Katherine. “Urban Ecology”, Boston College, 2005. http://hdl.handle.net/2345/483.
The study of human interactions with nature in the context of urban environments has evolved over the past fifty years. Early writers who were able to view urban areas as ecosystems planted the seeds for what is today an important and growing movement across the United States. They paved the way for later scholars to develop human- and ecologically-based natural histories, to imagine land uses, urban planning and development in new and sustainable ways, and to reinforce the spiritual and emotional bond between humanity and nature. In the last ten to fifteen years, organizations in urban areas around the United States have begun to look at planning and development with both an ecological lens and a focus on community-based, grassroots organizing. The layers of information available for study in an urban area are many and complex, providing an immense amount of data to those who choose to study cities. This study will first trace the theoretical development in understanding urban ecosystems, touching on important themes and groundbreaking authors. Subsequent chapters will build on the foundation laid by these authors in an exploration of the current practical use of urban ecology in the field, focusing on community-based organizations throughout the country.