Reiling, Robert. “A Child Left Behind”, Boston College, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/2345/479.
This paper uses Brazilian census data to evaluate the correlates, consequences, and possible causes of child labor. I find strong evidence that although most working children are also attending school, they are falling well behind their peers. I then attempt to explain state-by-state variation in child labor participation rates by using state level data, finding that economic concentration in specific industries is correlated with higher child participation in the labor market. Finally, using census data on income, I show that the current Brazilian program to alleviate child labor may also be effective in targeting higher income households then those now eligible for the program.