Anti-Semitism has become a virulent, pervasive phenomenon in the Modern Middle East today. In the past, anti-Semitism was mostly absent from mainstream Middle Eastern society. In the past two centuries, however, social and political upheaval, the encroachment of Western influence in the region, and the effects of Zionist organizations and the state of Israel have made the region a dangerous place for Jews. Anti-Semitism is perpetuated today by political and religious leaders as well as the media and is fueled by the anger and frustration of the people of the Middle East. This study examines the roots and causes of anti-Semitism in Middle Eastern history, in the religions and foreign powers that have impacted the region, and in the events of the twentieth century. It details the nature of anti-Semitism today and examines this phenomenon specifically in Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan in a comparative case study. This investigation closes by examining the possible steps towards ending Jew hatred in the region.