Pierre d'Ailly and the Development of Late Medieval Trinitarian Theology
Pierre d'Ailly and the Development of Late Medieval Trinitarian Theology: (with an edition of Quaestiones super primum Sententiarum, qq. 4-8, 10) By: John T. Slotemaker Advisor: Stephen F. Brown The present dissertation analyzes several periods in the development of late medieval trinitarian theology. The work is divided into two volumes. Volume I contains three parts of two chapters each: (1) the first part treats the trinitarian theology of Thomas Aquinas (ch. 1) and John Duns Scotus (ch. 2); (2) the second part treats the trinitarian theology of William of Ockham (ch. 3) and Walter Chatton, Adam Wodeham and Robert Holcot (ch. 4); (3) the third part treats the trinitarian theology of Gregory of Rimini (ch. 5) and Pierre d'Ailly (ch. 6). Volume II contains five appendices, including: a transcription of the tabula quaestionum for Peter d'Ailly's, Peter Gracilis's and James of Eltville's (i.e., the `Lectura Eberbacensis') respective commentaries on the Sentences; and an edition of Pierre d'Ailly's Quaestiones super libros SententiarumI, qq. 4-8 and 10. Part I of the dissertation considers Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus, arguing that this period of Parisian trinitarian theology is characterized by the heated debates concerning opposed and disparate relations. Thus, the role and primacy of the divine processions and/or the divine relations in articulating the distinction of persons is considered. As such, the argument developed throughout part I is consistent with the broader treatments of Michael Schmaus and Russell L. Friedman. Part II of the dissertation considers the trinitarian theology of four Oxford theologians: William of Ockham, Walter Chatton, Adam Wodeham and Robert Holcot. The first chapter analyzes the methodological approach of William of Ockham, considering in detail the influence of his analytic and linguistic method of theological analysis on the development of trinitarian theology. It is argued that Ockham is not primarily concerned with the previous debate over opposed or disparate relations, and that a shift in trinitarian theology is introduced with Ockham. Again, following Friedman, it is argued that because of Ockham's epistemological and linguistic approach to theological questions, he inaugurates a "search for simplicity"--to use Friedman's language--that characterizes the Oxford theologians. The second chapter of Part II examines the influence of Ockham on the subsequent developments in Oxford trinitarian theology. It is argued that in thinkers as diverse as Walter Chatton and Adam Wodeham, the influence of Ockham's theological method and approach to trinitarian questions is evident. The Venerable Inceptor, it is argued, shaped the discourse of subsequent Oxford theology. Part III of the dissertation returns to Paris, examining the theology of Gregory of Rimini and Pierre d'Ailly. In the first chapter, it is argued that Rimini follows closely the theological method of Ockham, with a renewed interest in articulating his theological positions in dialogue with Augustine of Hippo. This historical approach, it is argued, is grounded in Rimini's deductive theological method and its reliance on Scripture and the Fathers of the Church. Further, it is argued that Rimini clearly follows the previous Oxford theologians "search for simplicity", in particular the developments found in Walter Chatton and Robert Holcot. Finally, the second chapter of Part III considers the trinitarian thought of Pierre d'Ailly. It is argued that d'Ailly follows closely the theology of Ockham, but with a renewed interest (post Gregory) in articulating Ockham's positions in dialogue with Augustine. D'Ailly borrows methodologically from both Ockham (emphasis on language, etc.) and Rimini (emphasis on a deductive method and Scripture), although he will also return the basic theological arguments of Thomas Aquinas at points. Pierre d'Ailly is a harsh critic of Gregory and any trinitarian minimalism; in that regard he follows more closely the moderate path set by Ockham and Wodeham. Volume II of the dissertation includes an introduction to the manuscripts, incunabula and early printed editions of Pierre d'Ailly's Quaestiones super libros Sententiarum (Appendix A). Here the relevant manuscripts are discussed, and the reasons for basing the edition on Paris, Bibl. Mazarine, ms. 934, ff. 1-152 and Paris, Bibl. Mazarine, ms. 935, ff. 1-196 are defended. This is followed by Appendices B-D, treating the tabula quaestionum of book I of the commentaries on the Sentences by Pierre d'Ailly, Peter Gracilis (Royal, ms. 10A1) and James of Eltville (Clm, ms. 11591; i.e., the `Lectura Eberbacensis'). Finally, Appendix E contains a transcription and collation of Pierre d'Ailly's Quaestiones super libros Sententiarum I, qq. 4-8 and 10. The edition is based on Mazarine 934 and 935. The tables of questions are presented to allow some comparison of the structure of d'Ailly's commentary with those of his contemporaries. The edition of d'Ailly's texts is the first complete (i.e., presenting an entire quaestio or more) transcription of any of the questions in consideration, and is based on the two best manuscripts.