Catalytic Borylative Multicomponent Coupling Reactions and Novel Chemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Expeditious establishment of molecular complexity in a stereoselective manner is a prominent goal in organic synthesis. In this regard, multicomponent coupling reactions have received substantial attention due to their ability to access complex molecules from simple starting materials in a single step. Chapter 1 is a comprehensive review on catalytic bismetallative multicomponent reactions. The scope of this process in terms of both bismetallic reagents and the pi components are broad enough to be generally applied to more elaborate synthetic sequences. Particularly, contemporary applications of the bismetallative multicomponent coupling reactions, in which high enantio- and/or diastereoselectivities are displayed, have enabled the study of this area to make a significant step forward. Chapter 2 presents nickel-catalyzed coupling reactions of aldehyde, diene, and a diboron reagent in the presence of a trialkyl phosphine ligand. Compared to borylation reactions with one pi-component, these borylative multicomponent reactions (involving two pi components) lead to formation of a new C-C bond between the pi components as well as generation of highly functionalized, stereodefined products. Chapter 3 describes a remarkable turnover in regioselectivity of the borylative multicomponent coupling when PCy3 is replaced with P(SiMe3)3. In particular, the products from the reactions with P(SiMe3)3 feature three contiguous stereocenters and an alpha-chiral allylboronate. The effect of P(SiMe3)3 ligand on the product selectivity is intriguing. According to the experimental and computational results, it has an ability to act as an electron acceptor, which will facilitate reductive elimination from the intermediate nickel complex during the course of the reaction. In Chapter 4, we show that borylative ketone-diene coupling reactions can be accomplished in high yields and with excellent levels of diastereocontrol. This reaction occurs in a predictable fashion, yet with regioselection that is distinct from related aldehyde-diene coupling reactions. The reaction products from these coupling processes, which possess tertiary alcohol functionality and an allylic alcohol moiety, are particularly well suited for the preparation of polyketide natural products. Chapter 5 presents investigations on bowl-shaped geodesic polyarenes, which are the missing links between the "classic" planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the spheroidal fullerenes. The present study has shown that open geodesic polyarenes can feature chemistry inherent to both classes of aromatics. The curved pi system induces unequal environments on the two faces of circumtrindene, significant strain energy to the molecule, and non-identical bond lengths. Along with the electronic effects, the stereoelectronic effect enabled the site-selective functionalization with fullerene-type chemistry. On the other hand, the edge carbons, which are not present in fullerenes, still possess reactivity of common planar PAHs. Chapter 6 describes the intermolecular oxidative cyclotrimerization reactions of alkenes and aromatic compounds with DDQ and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. The Scholl-type oxidation reactions involving alkenes have never been demonstrated. Moreover, the DDQ/acid system has never been used for the intermolecular oxidative cyclization reactions. This convenient non-metallic reagent system (DDQ/TfOH) is advantageous over the metal-based Scholl-type oxidants because it eliminates the possibility of halogenation of aromatic compounds and the reduced oxidant can be reoxidized. In Chapter 7, the regioselective formation of cyclic trimers from substituted benzenes and heteroaromatic compounds is demonstrated. This DDQ/TfOH method provides a simple and convenient synthetic route toward star-shaped oligomers containing triphenylene or isotruxene cores. Furthermore, the experimental outcome suggests that this oxidative process proceeds by an electron transfer mechanism. This is the first experimental evidence for mechanistic details on the Scholl-type oxidation.