Quenum, Henri Elphège Léon. “Globalization, justice and solidarity”, Boston College, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/2345/1861.
Globalization is a social and economic fact. It is best described as the ascendancy of the free market regulated by supply and demand. By the manner in which trade has been extended, along with the ease of financial investing and reinvesting and the migration of people, globalization has engineered a global growth and stimulated the creation of wealth in such a way that for many it "has been an economic godsend," "a common climb to the top, a rising tide raising all boats." However the growth generated has not always benefited all nations. The African countries, including Benin, have been deeply hurt by the negative aspects of globalization and they have been marginalized by increasing poverty, inequality and injustice resulting from the expansion of privatization and liberalization.