The story of the Good Samaritan in Luke's Gospel (10:25-37) may be Jesus' most well-known teaching. Though it epitomizes the heart of Christian faith and the Great Commandment to love God and one's neighbors as oneself, the depth of the challenge to "Go and do likewise" like the Samaritan is not well understood and less often put into practice. The Samaritan's example sets a standard that is not met by random acts of kindness; Samaritan-like neighbor love means acting with courage, compassion, and generosity in boundary-breaking solidarity to care for those most in need. According to Gustavo Gutiérrez, by going out of his way and into the ditch to draw near to the robbers' victim, the Samaritan's actions depict the preferential option for the poor. This reverence for the other, especially one in such a vulnerable condition, depicts what Gutiérrez calls a "theology of the neighbor," which he claims has not yet been developed. This dissertation proposes a "theology of neighbor" motivated and oriented by the details of this paradigmatic standard for Christian discipleship to more fully capture how the principles of solidarity and preferential option for the poor may be put into practice. Before working out the theological, moral, and pedagogical implications for this framework, this project focuses on three key features of the present praxis that influence how "neighbor" might be understood today: the complex and compressed systems of globalization, the social disengagement of the "buffered self" as described by Charles Taylor, and the "networked self" that enjoys unprecedented rates of connectivity via digital technologies and social media. In response to the challenges posed by this socio-cultural context, this dissertation articulates a moral vision for being neighbors today. This is given shape by a matrix of virtues that include compassion, courage, fidelity, and prudence. When put into practice, these dispositions and habits are meant to inspire and sustain an integral life-pattern committed to solidarity and preferential option for the poor held in balance with the moral obligations to one's family and friends. Narrowing the focus to students at U.S. Catholic colleges and informed by the current conditions for their personal, social, religious, and moral formation, this dissertation proposes a pedagogical approach to theological education as neighbor-formation. This involves establishing communities of practice that follow the Samaritan's example to draw near - physically and virtually - to neighbors in need in steadfast commitment to right-relationship in solidarity. In doing so, this dissertation develops a framework of principles and practices to effectively engage today's emerging adults to "Go and do likewise" in an increasingly globalized, digital world.