Initially the British administration in Palestine assumed responsibility only for Arab public schooLs. A dual school system evolved when the government designated as public, Zionist schools hitherto considered private. This change brought increased government subvention and supervision, but on a more limited scale than that of Arab schools functioning completely under the government's authority. The Hebrew system was nearly autonomous. This study uses the methodology of historical research to investigate the development of public education from 1920 to 1946 and seeks to gain an understanding of each school system rather than explicitly to probe for comparisons between the two.